Initial points of translation from formalism

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- Translations between biology and
sociology
- Part I: initial points of translation.
- Part II: What questions does sociology ask
- Part III: What are the roles of calcium in the genotype - phenotype argument?

- Trees and graphs -
**Abstract - 5/7/99 - (1,200 words)**

Graph theory can be used as a notation that allows descriptions of web-like connections between objects. By translating the librarian's problem into graph theory it is possible to distinguish four general cases of graphs. When applied to translations between biology and sociology, these four cases show that it is possible for biologists and sociologists to mis-represent each other's arguments, thus allowing them to dismiss each other's results. However, these general cases also allow some of the limitative results of formal literary criticism to be expressed in mathematical terms. A specific example, Derrida's Circle of Meaning, is translated into graph theory. The form of this translation shows that biological and sociological mis-representations are two extreme cases. It also shows that cases exist for which biological and sociological representations can agree. The sociologist Umberto Eco and the biologist Ernst Mayr both agree that pluralist theories best represent their specific fields of research. The translation problem then becomes: which specific graph are we dealing with in each specific biological or sociological example? Furthermore, is that graph one that allows agreement and therefore is that graph one that allows translations to be made? - Hierarchies in biology

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Modified 30/5/99