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Peter Kropotkin, (1902) "Mutual aid: a factor of evolution", William Heinemann, London.

This edition (1987) Freedom Press, London from a 1939 edition.

Many thanks to Ben Hughes for lending my his copy of "Mutual Aid".


One of Kropotkin's replies to T.H. Huxley's "selfish Darwinism". Huxley says that the greatest pressure on an organism's survival comes from other individuals of its own species.

Kropotkin say that, if the greatest pressure on an organism's survival comes from other species (i.e. in the Russian steppes), then the organism will co-operate with other individuals of its own species for Mutual Aid.


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Created 10/2/00
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